MOTIVATIONAL THEORY (PROCHASKA)

Motivation is a word of Latin origin and is derived from the word 'movere', which means to take action or to activate. The Turkish equivalent of the word motivation, which means any force or motive that consciously or unconsciously gives rise to behavior, ensures the continuity of behavior and directs it, is "güdü". Motivation is the state that activates and maintains behavior to achieve a goal.

Nov 24, 2023 - 19:27
Nov 24, 2023 - 21:25
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MOTIVATIONAL THEORY (PROCHASKA)
MOTIVATIONAL THEORY (PROCHASKA)

MOTIVATIONAL THEORY (PROCHASKA)

 Motivation is a word of Latin origin and is derived from the word 'movere', which means to take action or to activate. The Turkish equivalent of the word motivation, which means any force or motive that consciously or unconsciously gives rise to behavior, ensures the continuity of behavior and directs it, is "güdü". Motivation is the state that activates and maintains behavior to achieve a goal. The behavior of a child who keeps his/her room tidy in order to win his/her mother's chocolate reward is an example of motivation. According to the German philosopher Schoupenhaur, it is the result of all organisms' desire to choose, comprehend and even achieve satisfaction. According to Vroom, the process of choosing among a person's voluntary actions is defined as motivation. Skinner defines motivation in school learning as 'arousing, maintaining and directing desired behavior'. Although motivation has been defined in many different ways, it essentially explains the beginning of behavior, its direction to a goal, and the continuation of behavior in line with this goal. In fact, motivation is the driving force, desire and enthusiasm necessary to achieve what is desired. American educator Terell explains the importance of motivation with the sentence: “There are three things to remember about education; The first is motivation, the second is motivation, the third is motivation again.”

 While motivation is so important in the actions performed or to be performed, how motivation is achieved and maintained has been a matter of curiosity for scientists in the 21st century. While at least 300 studies on this subject were published until the mid-1970s, the most well-known of these studies is the 'Two-Factor Motivation Theory', which Herzberg revealed in the 1950s. While creating this theory, he researches the techniques used by managers to motivate employees and completes it by examining in detail the steps followed by institutions to increase their motivation by meeting the needs of employees. Herzberg focused on two basic questions in his study:

1) Think of a time when you felt particularly good about your job, why did you feel that way?

2) Think of a time when you felt particularly bad about your job, why did you feel that way?

 According to the feedback given to these questions, Herzberg based motivation on the motivation factor (intrinsic factor) and the hygiene factor (extrinsic factor).

 Today, motivation theories are divided into two categories that called content and process. While content theories explain what motivation is, process theories explain how motivation occurs. When it was realized that motivation covers so much space in the individual's life, motivational theory was also used in psychotherapies, and motivational theory played a major role in the process of addiction that the individual wanted to gain or quit. As it is known, in psychotherapy, the individual's need to gain awareness about the problem, his/her belief that the problem can be eliminated, and the clinician's attention to the requirements to eliminate the problem are critical and important points for the client. Motivational Theory has classified the process that individuals experience in terms of change into four stages:

1. Pre-Design Period

During this period, the client cannot see the problem or has trouble accepting it. The most effective method that can be done during this period is to make the individual realize the difference between the situation he/she wants to be in and the situation he/she is today. For example, an individual who experiences OCD very intensely should be emphasized about the difference between his/her life before OCD and the life he/she is trying to continue with OCD, and the contributions of other individuals who do not experience this condition to their lives and the possibility that they can be comfortable even though they are not in this situation should be conveyed.

2. Design Period

 During this period, the client is aware of the problem and wants to solve it, but still lacks belief that the problem can be solved. During this period, it is aimed to increase the client's belief that the problem will be resolved by examining the reason for his or her slight belief that the problem will be resolved. Concrete situations should be shown to the client that this is possible by performing some behavioral experiments to show that the problem can be solved, even if it is difficult. For example, when we want him to do a daily routine he has had for a long time in a different way, we must convince him that change is possible by showing a behavioral example that it can be changed, even if it is difficult.

3. Preparation Period

 The individual in this period now wants change and feels ready for what needs to be done for change. During this period, the client should set small goals and the process of achieving his goals should be closely monitored. It is possible to conduct cognitive behavioral therapy during this period.

4. Action Period

 During this period, cognitive therapy is applied completely and the client is now aware of the problem, wants change and is ready to work necessary for this change. But it is still very important to make sure that the client is ready for this process.

 According to Motivational Theory, the basic principle of the interview is that the client should be ready for change, that is, there should be no imposition on the client in this regard. The main purpose of Motivational Theory is to accept that ambivalence can exist in the individual and that this is possible. For this reason, ambivalence thoughts should be resolved by talking to the client and the process should begin after this is overcomed.

 

References:

• Bilişsel Davranışçı Terapi: Temel İlkeler ve Uygulamalar ( Türkçapar,2022,pp.164-166).

• https://herapsikoloji.com/psikolojide-motivasyon-ve-motivasyon-kuramlari/

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Ebrar Koku Merhaba, ben Ebrar Koku. Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt üniversitesinde Psikoloji bölümünde öğrenciyim, 3üncü sınıfım. Çeviri yapmak benim için bir hobi sayılabilir, ilgi çekici ve bilgilendirici konularda yazılan makaleleri sizler için çevirmekten mutluluk duyuyorum. İyi okumalar :)